Stokes, Andrew C., Dielle J. Lundberg, Jacob Bor, Irma T. Elo, Katherine Hempstead, Samuel H. Preston. 2021. Association of Health Care Factors With Excess Deaths Not Assigned to COVID-19 in the U.S. JAMA Network Open.
"Approximately 20% of excess deaths in the US in 2020 were not reflected in COVID-19 death counts. These excess deaths included deaths caused by COVID-19 but not assigned to it as well as indirect deaths from other causes associated with delays in health care and the social and economic consequences of the pandemic. Prior research has documented differences in the percentage of excess deaths not assigned to COVID-19 at the state and county levels. In this study, we examined health care factors associated with excess deaths not assigned to COVID-19 at the county level."